Computer Science

Wireless Technology

GSM Networks

Information technologies prolong to spread out the limitations of enabling experience of education anytime and anywhere. The integration of mobile and high fidelity networks in to any computing device demonstrates innovative experience for the students to access educational resources. The mobile technology devices include laptops, personal digital assistants, mart phones, mobile phones, global positioning system (GPS) devices, and wireless Point of Sales (POS) terminals. Likewise, 3G is the most widely adopted generation for cellular and data networks. However, 4G is also available that requires a separate complaint technology (Smith, 2009). The 3G cellular networks incorporate WCDMA, HSPA, EVDO and many more. Whereas, 4G cellular networks incorporates LTE, UMB, Wi-Max etc. however, all of these mentioned 4G technologies are not complaint by the set standards for 4G. (Jaloun & Guennoun, 2010) The data transfer or data speed is comparison with 3G exceeds for 4G, as the top speed for 3G is 14Mbps (downlink) and for uplink it is 5.8 Mbps. Besides, speed for 4G cellular networks for downlink is 100Mbps and for a user on a stationary state is 1Gbp. However these mentioned speeds are only achievable via wired local area network. Moreover, 4G cellular network do not use circuit switching dissimilar to 3G cellular network that uses hybrid packet and circuit switching. It is evident that circuit switching is an old technology that was utilized by analog Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN). Likewise, resource utilization in the 3G network is not optimal, as a resource is always bonded to an active connection. Packet switching was utilized in traditional computer networks but has since utilized by cellular networks as well. Packet switching ensures optimal resource utilization, as well as bandwidth utilization for long distant calls and most importantly Internet.

In this current era, organization requires voice + data connections for exchanging digital information via remote offices that are geographically dispersed. Likewise, as far as security is concerned, privacy is essential, as confidential data, such as data next five year plans or trade secrets can be revealed in the absence of data protection controls. In order to safeguard this information, access control methods must be implemented for assuring the access to only the relevant staff i.e. doctors, caregivers, patients etc. A system was introduced by (Le, Khalid, Sankar, & Lee, 2011) called as Mutual Authentication and Access Control based on Elliptic Curve Cryptography (MAACE). (Hu, Jiang, & Xiao, 2008) MAACE enforces a mutual authentication mechanism i.e. an employee of an organization will be authenticated to a secure repository, smart phone or PDA along with ensuring only permitted data to be accessed. Moreover, by deploying cryptography, the MAACE system provides symmetric key encryption methods ensuring feasibility on sensor based architectures (Hu, Jiang, & Xiao, 2008).

Wi-Max will be best solution, as data and voice connectivity is supported on long distances without the hassle of regulatory compliance and legislative laws. Employees of the company can interact via email, online portals, chats, intranet applications and VoIP phones. Wi-Max provides connectivity within a 30 mile radius via a GSM based Base Transceiver Station (BTS). A Wi-Max modem that is also called a Client Premises Equipment (CPE) can be utilized for establishing data packet connectivity via the company premises and the GSM BTS. A proxy server can be utilized for terminating the connection and applying organizational policies, restrictions, web filtering etc. For replacing expensive Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTN), organization can use VoIP phones or licensed Skype for initiating VoIP sessions or even VoIP conference calls with a minimized cost. For providing wireless connectivity within the organization premises, Wireless access points can be installed and protected by WPA2 authentication. Consequently, IPS/IDS (Intrusion Prevention System / Intrusion detection system) are invented. They are derived from the traditional security appliances, and defined by the computer desktop encyclopedia, as a sensor “set up to detect illegal actions within the host. Most IDS programs typically use signatures of known cracker attempts to signal an alert. Others look for deviations of the normal routine as indications of an attack. Intrusion detection is very tricky. Too much analysis can add excessive overhead and also trigger false alarm”. IDS are of many types and organizations choose the best possible type that suits their prioritized mission critical systems. The types includes network based IDS, host based IDS and software based IDS. These types are further categorized in to signature based IDS which is also referred as misuse detection, and Anomaly detection.

  • Configuring Deny attacker inline: This feature is configured to monitor attacks from the wireless hacker on the network within a specific time. Moreover, the feature will also show the activity of eliminating the threat from the network. By reviewing frequency of attacks from internal and external premises of the organization, network administrator can assume the algorithm and techniques that are currently being used by the hacker.
  • Configuring Deny connection inline: By configuring this option, network administers will identify the TCP stream, both internal and external, that is being used by the hacker to attack the network, and will set both of these streams to terminate.
  • Deny packet inline: During the process, if any packets coming from the wireless stream acts abnormally can be terminated by this feature.
  • Configuring Log attacker packets: This option logs the entries of packets from the source of attacker and transmits an alert.
  • Configuring Log pair packets: Network administrator can also set logging for both the attack and the victim.
  • Request block connection: On the analysis of the above mentioned steps, firewall receives a message to block the specific and identified data stream.
  • Request block host: However, if host of the hacker is identified, firewall will block and restrict access from the host.

After applying administrative, legislative, technical, environmental and physical controls, Wi-Max network can be established. However, there is a requirement of subscribing to Wi-Max service providers in the respected area of each remote office. Moreover, the traffic will use Internet cloud and not a separate cloud. Nevertheless, Virtual Private Network can be created between remote offices available on the Wi-Max network.


Hu, F., Jiang, M., & Xiao, Y. (2008). Low-cost wireless sensor networks for remote cardiac patients monitoring applications. Wireless Communications & Mobile Computing, 8(4), 513-529. doi:10.1002/wcm.488

Ids. (2011). Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, , 1.

Jaloun, M., & Guennoun, Z. (2010). Wireless mobile evolution to 4G network. Wireless Sensor Network, 2(4), 309-317. doi: 10.4236/wsn.2010.24042

Kumaravel, K. (2011). Comparative study of 3G and 4G in mobile technology. International Journal of Computer Science Issues (IJCSI), 8(5), 256-263.

Le, X. H., Khalid, M., Sankar, R., & Lee, S. (2011). An efficient mutual authentication and access control scheme for wireless sensor networks in healthcare. Journal of Networks, 6(3), 355-364. doi:10.4304/jnw.6.3.355-364

Smith, B. (2009). The shift from 3G to 4G. (cover story). Wireless Week, 14(19), 6.